Ancient chinese dating system
The origin of agriculture is often referred to as the Neolithic Revolution.
Keep in mind that different societies domesticated plants and animals, and consequently agriculture, independently i.e. These farmers had to overcome obstacles such as dry land with technologies like large scale irrigation.
Taxes thus first, perhaps unfortunately, appeared on the scene, usually in the form of a tax-in-kind (taking a portion of a product, such as grain from a farmer, the use of money was yet to appear).
Suddenly, all the parts of an ancient civilization appeared.
The first such excavation was at Tell Es-Sultan, just outside of Jericho.
This led to diversification of labor which meant that food requirements could be on the backs of certain people and new classes like artisans or warriors could develop.
These people developed technologies like pottery, metallurgy or plows.
About 5,000 years ago the first urban societies developed laying the foundations for the first civilizations.
These were found with stone figurines in levels where earthen buildings had been flattened and destroyed, as though civilization had kept building atop their own ruins, or re-purposing land, as needs changed.
Evidence in the middle east shows pottery styles moving throughout the Arabian peninsula, especially during the late Halaf-Ubaid period, where painted pottery and flint arrowheads have been discovered in great number.